BMRCL Reveals Silk Board – KR Puram Line’s Detailed Project Report

The Bangalore Metro Rail Corporation Ltd. just made the Detailed Project Report (DPR) for the upcoming Silk Board – KR Puram line available on their website. The DPR was prepared by BMRCL’s in-house team within a month’s timeframe and provides the entire project plan, traffic forecast, financial viability and risk mitigation plan for issues during its execution. Check it out here and if you have any suggestions, then forward them along to bmrcl@dataone.in by November 30 2016.

Part of Phase 2A, the BMRCL officially refers to this line as Line-7 and has not yet assigned a color to it. That type of decision is usually taken during the project’s implementation.

dpr2

Map displaying Silk Board – KR Puram line’s alignment

silkboardkrpurammap

Bangalore Metro’s Phase 1, Phase 2 & Phase 2A Map

Here are some interesting data points:

Estimated Cost: Rs. 4202 Crores  (July 2016 prices)

Length: 17 km – this is the commercial route length only. Viaduct’s length connecting to the depot will make it longer.

Type: Elevated – Viaduct will be built on the Outer Ring Road’s median & requires no land acquisition.

Stations: 13 at KR Puram (interchange with upcoming Purple Line), Mahadevpura, DRDO Sports Complex, Doddanakundi, ISRO, Marathahalli, Kodibisanahalli, Kadubeesanahalli, Bellandur, Ibbalur, Agara Lake, HSR Layout, Silk Board (interchange with upcoming RV Road – Bommasandra line).

Note that Kodibisanahalli has been mentioned twice. One of them is likely to be renamed.

dpr1

Depot: The trains will be stabled and & maintained at the existing Baiyappanahalli  Depot. Some of the Purple Line’s existing stabling lines will be re-purposed for this line and due to that, a new depot for the Purple Line has been proposed at Kodugodi near Hope Farm Junction (view suggested layout) where government land is available. At a later stage, the Baiyappanahalli  Depot will exclusively be used by this new line’s trains while the Purple Line’s trains will be stabled & maintained at Kodugodi and the upcoming Challaghatta Depot.

dpr4

Land Acquisition: The BMRCL requires a total of 15179 sq meters of which 9268 sq meters is private land and the rest 5911 sq meters is government land.

Construction MethodologyElevated viaduct consisting of pre-stressed concrete box/U-shaped girders on single pier/portal with pile/open foundation. The viaduct will look sleek & similar to the ones in Noida, Lucknow & Kochi.

SignallingCommunication Based Train Control (CBTC) with Automatic Train Protection (ATP) and Automatic Train Operation (ATO) sub-systems. This will allow for high train frequencies, and the DPR proposes a headway of 2.5 minutes to be implemented in the future.

Rolling Stock: BMRCL plans to initially procure 20 6-coach trains and operate them in a DMC-TC-MC+MC-TC-DMC formation from the get-go. This means 3-coach trains like currently on the Purple/Green lines will never be operated for commercial services. Since the Baiyappanahalli Depot will be utilized for maintenance, the rolling stock’s dimensions will be similar to those on the Purple & Green lines. Max train capacity is estimated at 1574 assuming 6 people/square meter. Along with a 4 minute frequency, that translates to a system capacity of 37,776 PHPDT (Peak Hour Peak Direction Traffic).

dpr3

Traffic Forecast (Estimated Ridership):
The following figures were arrived through different modeling techniques. A more detailed table for 2020 can viewed on page 3-25. Worth a look but pretty inconsequential as the line will not be operational by then.

2021: 3.52 Lakhs/Day
2031: 4.59 Lakhs/Day
2041: 5.75 Lakhs/Day

Funding Scenarios:
This is the most important part of the project that will influence when the project’s construction starts. Earlier it appeared that the BMRCL’s innovative financing techniques, touted by them as the hall-mark of the project, would finance a bulk of it, but looking at the funding options proposed (not exhaustive or set on stone), the BMRCL expects to borrow a similar or significant amount to fund it:

dpr5

Future Extension: The line is proposed to be extended to Hebbal via Nagawara which is the most logical next step. Similar to this in Gurgaon, I believe the superstructure of the viaduct between the Baiyappanahalli Depot & KR Puram Station will likely include a physical provision for its extension.

dpr7

For more detailed info, do check out the DPR.

My Thoughts:

There are lots of positive take-aways from the DPR, like the decision to use of CBTC signalling and U-shaped girders for construction. That said, project funding is the most important component in all construction projects and at this time, no funds towards its execution have been (publically) tied up or promised by any government, lending agency or private company. Land acquisition is tricky, never easy and even more so in Bangalore because it’s not BMRCL’s forte as currently being witnessed in Phase 2’s execution where land notifications for many sections have not even been prepared or sent out.

After the BMRCL encorporates everyone’s suggestions, the DPR will be presented to the state government’s cabinet. Whenever they approve, the exact funding split/outlay will be known, and the BMRCL will then take steps to appoint a detailed design contractor (DDC) to assist with the line’s design. Overall, the government’s enthusiasm is very encouraging and with many pre-construction tasks still pending,  I expect construction work to begin in 2018-2019.

For more updates, check out the Bangalore section of The Metro Rail Guy!

– TMRG

Share this post!
Share on FacebookTweet about this on TwitterDigg thisShare on LinkedInPin on PinterestShare on RedditShare on Google+Share on StumbleUponShare on TumblrEmail this to someonePrint this page

written by

Global traveler who prefers mass rapid transit

85 Responses to "BMRCL Reveals Silk Board – KR Puram Line’s Detailed Project Report"

  1. Naveen says:

    Financial viability should have been proved with a drone camera above ORR. That’s all that’s required.

    Reply
    • TMRG says:

      Haha 🙂

      Reply
      • Murli says:

        The ORR traffic originates from residential areas like JP Nagar extensions, Banashankari (different stages), Koramangala etc. Unless the metro connects these pockets I don’t expect the road traffic to reduce much.
        Since these are office traffic, I suspect this stretch of metro usage to be lean on weekends.

        Reply
    • Pavan says:

      There were a couple of statistics in the Phase 2A DPR that blew my mind.

      – Commercial office space in India is about 40.3 million sq.ft, off which Bangalore has 13.2 million sq.ft and the ORR region has 7.2 million sq.ft.
      – Estimated total loss of productivity due to traffic in the ORR region and the consequent delays is ₹ 20,713 Crores (~3 Billion USD) in 2015.

      The ORR line is estimated to cost ₹ 4202 Crores (July 2016 prices). Looking at these numbers I simply can’t believe we are just getting around to the ORR metro line now, in 2016.

      It feels like, had we invested in this earlier, even if the line was not profitable, seems like could have gained many times over in investments, tax revenues, job growth etc. that we lost to competing cities.

      Reply
      • pawan says:

        I doubt if companies let you loose productivity for you stuck in traffic. companies get their 9+ hrs of work no matter what.

        i doubt that 20+k cr value holds good. nevertheless, i feel your pain.

        Reply
  2. Anil says:

    Thanks as always for putting the latest details together. I feel there should have been 1 more station between Agara Lake and Ibbalur. The distance between them is almost 3 kilometers which is too much. Granted there isn’t much built-up space between them, but the Agara Lake station should have been further south and the new one can be close to HSR layout’s 27th main road. I will send my suggestion to them.

    Reply
  3. Nandan says:

    hey will the line cross the silk board flyover? Where will the station be located?

    Reply
    • TMRG says:

      It would – see the very last page of the DPR. The station will come up right in front of the Silk Board building on the ORR.

      Reply
      • Vijay says:

        Shouldn’t they redo the lines. It seems to make more sense if they club Jaynagar line going to Electronic city instead to ORR. And Electronic city line extended to Diary circle. Which can eventually be extended into the city. A good circular line can be built.

        Reply
        • TMRG says:

          I prefer that as well, but the BMRCL is far too invested in the current alignments to now make any change. Hopefully the Silkboard – KR Puram line will be designed to allow it to be extended westward in the future. There will be some duplication of lines, but that’s fine with me.

          Reply
  4. yantraka says:

    As per Fig. 4.2 on Page #76 (Typical Cros Section of Viaduct) of the DPR, the viaduct looks the same as the existing BMRCL viaducts (they do not use U shaped girders). So, how will the viaduct look like the ones in Noida, Lucknow & Kochi?

    Reply
    • TMRG says:

      I saw that figure as well. Like other items, it seems like a copy-paste from another DPR. The salient features page right at the start of the doc mentions the use of “U
      shaped girders” for construction methodology (point#10).

      Reply
      • yantraka says:

        There are 2 possibilities which are more likely than a copy-paste error of the Figure in question –

        [1] The use of “U shaped girders” in “Construction Methodology” section is a copy-paste error

        [2] A terminology misunderstanding – the existing BMRCL viaducts can be thought of being made up of a single U shaped cross-section carrying both the pairs of tracks, instead of 2 U shaped girders as in Noida, Lucknow and Kochi viaducts, each carrying a single pair of tracks. The U-shaped section is integrated into another box cross-section. What is not in doubt is that these are smaller length sections, probably post-tensioned, unlike the girders in other cities. Not sure what is the right civil engineering term for this cross-section.

        Reply
        • TMRG says:

          They’re officially referred to as ‘precast segments’ and never as ‘U-shaped’ or ‘girder’ due to their small size and the fact that one segment doesn’t form a span to connect 2 piers, just like how a girder does.

          The U shape using segments is formed at a later stage of construction. The parapet (side) wall is cast separately and joined after segment launching for a stretch is completed. Nagpur is the only city to have precast segments come along with the parapet walls – see details

          I’d rather go with the salient features page than something deep inside the DPR which is more likely to have been copy-pasted. The DPR is a good guideline, but not set on stone. Ultimately the Detailed Design Contractor will help to determine what construction methodology will be used.

          Reply
          • yantraka says:

            I am not sure if words take precedence over diagrams; after all, one picture is worth a thousand words. And anybody with a more than passing interest in the document or with a technical bent of mind, would study the diagrams more carefully than the verbiage.

            I am not sure if there has been a precedence of Detailed Design Contractor changing the Construction Methodology which is already chosen and implemented elsewhere in the same Metro.

            As a Bengalurean, I sincerely hope your surmise is true 🙂 I, for one, do not like the existing viaducts -they are too chunky and unaesthetic. The third rail is a good choice, though!

          • TMRG says:

            The DDC’s input is quite crucial. Their input actually led to the Kengeri extension’s construction to be carried out using segments and not U-girders. Delhi is a good example where both construction methods have been used. The Yellow Line in north Delhi was built with segments up till Jehangirpuri in Phase 2. In Phase 3, they’ve extended the line to Samaypur Badli using U-girders. Similarly, the Violet Line was built with segments up till Badarpur in Phase 2. In Phase 3, they’ve extended the line to Faridabad using U-girders.

            Btw this particular discussion has reached its branch limit. You can choose to start a new one if required.

  5. Sumit Malik says:

    They will require only 15179 m² for the entire line? Seems kinda hard to believe that they can construct 13 Stations and viaduct in that much land. Even on Outer Ring Road, it’s impossible to construct everywhere JUST ON MEDIAN, especially around Kadubeesanahalli and Marathahalli underpasses

    So again, no provision for parking?

    Reply
    • TMRG says:

      They plan to have parking at stations – just search for ‘parking’ in the doc. Usually the land requirements for it are clubbed along with the stations’ requirements.

      There isn’t any specific info right now. The Detailed Design Consultant and architect will plan that out in the next stage before construction tenders are invited.

      Reply
    • Nitin says:

      Parking should not be an option on metro stations. Instead a connectivity network of feeder buses, proper footpaths and access to stations for walking should be provisioned.

      Parking for cycles could be provided but given the alignment of this particular route, there’s no need as cycle lanes on this alignments seem far fetched and dangerous for riders.

      Reply
  6. Narayanan says:

    Hi,

    The metro alignment does not talks about location and alignment of Whitefield station. It talks about the depot. Is there any way to get this information

    Reply
    • TMRG says:

      Hi, they have no reason to talk about the station. The depot was mentioned because they need to justify how easy (in terms of land requirement) it would be to transition over to B’halli. Anyhow, if you look at the depot’s layout closely, you’ll notice the Whitefield station’s location. At first glance, it’ll come up on the east side of the road where “Alembic Glass Colony Bus Stop” is marked – view on google maps.

      Reply
  7. Prashanth M says:

    Kodibisanahalli is infact a different place/area than Kadubeesanahalli – it is more popularly known as JP Morgan bus stop on the ORR BMTC routes.

    And thanks for the detailed info 🙂

    Reply
  8. Dhruva Sen says:

    Under present circumstances, when do you think is likely start of Gottigere – Nagwara line of Phase 2 ??

    Reply
    • TMRG says:

      Construction is expected to start 2018. They’ve issued land acquisition notifications for the Gottigere-Dairy Circle stretch, so the bids for it can be expected to be invited anytime now. Notifications for the Dairy Circle – Nagawara underground stretch are being prepared.

      Reply
  9. Shripad says:

    Regarding funding, contribution from central govt seems to be less than 15%. Is this the case with ph1 & metro projects in other metro cities?

    As per this snippet, there seems to be no direct land acquisition from pvt parties. Complete land requirement for via duct be suplied by BDA, if the route runs at the centre of ORR? Is that correct?

    Reply
    • TMRG says:

      1) Only witnessed in Navi Mumbai where the MH government decided to fund it entirely with state funds. They can approach the central government for funds but approvals can take a year or more. Recent approvals include Noida & Pune’s projects.
      2) 9268 sq meters of private land is required. The viaduct needs no land acquisition as it’ll run along the median.

      Reply
      • Shripad says:

        In Ph2 East West extension beyond BYP, BMRCL is stuck with acquisition of 270 odd private properties, it could be bigger challenge in ORR area, where property price is quite high.

        As per Table 12.1, Silk board to Bellandur section requires minimal acquisition of private property (only one — 800 sq mtr from Ecospace). This section could be taken up first and be called as Reach 1 of lane 7. This section can be operationalised first, after Silk board get connected with Jayanagar/RV Road. Help good section of south and south east traffic congestion.

        Reply
  10. Raphael/Link-Skywalker says:

    Is seven lines the master plan of Bengalore, or there will be more ?

    Reply
    • TMRG says:

      Bangalore has no metro master plan. Lines will continue to be built whenever & wherever there’s a need with whatever funds are available or can be arranged at that time.

      Reply
  11. Aditya says:

    Quite a serious discussion going on here..

    Reply
    • TMRG says:

      Feel free to join in! 😀

      Reply
      • Aditya says:

        Well i am from delhi so dont really know the areas of bangalore. However, I would like to know about the different types of griders, U-shaped, precasted and all that. Could you post an article on that. You did mentioned that all of these were used in delhi as well.

        Reply
        • TMRG says:

          For pre-cast segments, see the Ahmedabad section. Lots of images of them being launched. In Delhi, they’ve been used wherever the line is elevated.

          Reply
  12. Venkat says:

    I wanted to know on which side the metro station comes in marathahalli area? Is it on innovative multiplex side or opposite side?

    Reply
    • TMRG says:

      On the Innovative Multiplex side right in front of Aishwarya Opulence Apartments. Check out the very last page of the DPR for the exact location.

      Reply
      • KRISHNAN says:

        Hi TMRG, I tried to zoom the pdf to maximum but couldnot understand the MAP , Can you post the marathalli station part of the MAP with few comments so that it is more clear to all.The is one of the biggest traffic mess point

        Reply
          • krishnan says:

            Thanks a lot, now it is clear. I wish that BMRCL works for 24 x7 and somehow finish this part of the route at the shortest possible time.
            I travel from Marathalli to Whitefield every day.If both the phase 2 ( byappanahalli to hope farm) and ORR happens at the same time then traffic diversion could be a big issue for two / three years.

  13. Rajesh says:

    But the DPR says all the stations are on centre of the median with entry and exit on both sides of the ORR.

    Reply
  14. Bhupendra says:

    When can we expect the work to start for kadugodi line. Initially it was expected to be completed by 2017 n then later 2019 but I don’t see it even being started as of today. Also what will be the exact location of kadugodi station? One station proposed was next to school near hope farm and kaodugodi station somewhere near kadugodi police station . Can you please confirm exact location ? Is there any plan to extend this line till segehalli or maybe till end touching old madras road. Somewhere near nee upcoming mantri mall?

    Reply
    • Narayanan says:

      Kindly request for TMRG´s updates on this please if possible. There are lots of apartments after kadugodi near seeghehalli. Information and location of Whitefield station is still not available publicly. Is it possible to get this info.

      Reply
    • TMRG says:

      BMRCL has been awfully slow to invite bids, conduct tendering and award contracts. Among all orgs, they’ve done the worst job. Even the metro orgs in Lucknow and Ahmedabad are far quicker in this respect. At this stage, BMRCL hasn’t invited bids for the Purple Line’s extension to Whitefield and with the amount of time it takes to award contracts, construction will only start in 2018.

      I’ve marked the approx location of both stations in Kadugodi here. Hope that helps.

      There’s currently no plan to extend the line any further further but that would be the next logical extension of the line.

      Reply
  15. Shripad says:

    I have yet to complete 276 pages of this DPR, is there ant mention of start and expected completion date ?

    1. Do they plan to start activities from both the side silk board (chain 0.000) and K R Puram (chain 18.0)?

    2. When they start the activity, what is the expected stage of BYP-KR Puram section and Jayanagar-Electronic city section.

    3. Based on progress, do Metro plan to start train run in intermediate sections (say from Silk board to Bellandur) without waiting for full 18 km section complete.

    Reply
    • TMRG says:

      The DPR is simply a project plan and never contains start/completion times.
      1) Like all metro lines in India, the line will be divided up into different packages. Each package will have its own dedicated contractor, so work will start simultaneously at all packages wherever ROW/land is available. I estimate there to be 3 packages.
      2) Both of those sections are expected to be under construction as well.
      3) Ops can only begin on sections connected to the depot. Since the line will utilize the B’halli depot, ops can and will start from there.

      Reply
  16. Nithin says:

    I am interested to know how will they put pillers where ever those split flyovers are currently located. They are already so conkested. It will bone chilling once this project starts as i travel from j p nagar to bagmane world trade centre in mahadevpura😂 either I will change company or shift my house the day the construction starts 🙂

    Reply
  17. Sunil says:

    1) Where is exact location of station at DRDO sports complex and Doddanekkundi junction.

    Thanks

    Reply
    • TMRG says:

      Hi, the DRDO Sports Complex station is planned in front of Bagmane World Technology Center – SEZ (specifically the building where EMC Corporation is located) and the Doddanekundi station will come up right in front of the Rainbow Children’s Hospital.

      Reply
  18. Akash says:

    Why is not Marthahalli and Iblur is been considered as interchange? considering future lines of Phase 3.

    Reply
    • TMRG says:

      Yea, their locations (esp. Marathahalli) seem a little too far off from where the new Phase 3 lines will pass through. With the current station locations, the new stations will be at least 200-300 meters away which isn’t too ideal for easily switching trains, similar to how some of the interchanges are coming up in Delhi.

      Reply
  19. Parthasarathy S says:

    Quite good. It is a surprise to see DPR out quickly for this one. Let us see how fast they can sort things out and start construction. That would be a welcome change.

    Reply
  20. Mathi says:

    I was wondering why not make RV road/Jayadeva/Silk board/ORR line as single line and plan for extending the Bommasandra-silk board line later (say phase-3) to Hebbal and connect it with the airport link. We can cover Koramangala, SHanthi nagar BMTC bus stand on this extension and have an interchange @ Sir M Visveshwarya Station. Should be UG for 4-5 KMs from Koramangala to hotel chalukya

    Proposed map will look like
    https://drive.google.com/open?id=1W2…q0&usp=sharing

    Reply
  21. Sunil says:

    Thanks for the reply…is it at start of new flyover or wht is distance from new fly over (DRDO sports complex station).

    Thanks,

    Reply
  22. Hemant says:

    After earning so much of taxes from Bangalore , the government will bring in only 509cr for funding !
    The 500cr from leasing of property ?? How much property has bmrcl got ??
    The apathy of Karnataka state govt is taking toll of Bangalore and or health for far too long.
    Btw..forgot to mention, how much govt has collected thru metro cess on petrol ? Any numbers ??

    Reply
  23. Anusha says:

    Hi,

    I wanted to know which are the 2 properties that would be acquired in the outer ring road..? Is any property gonna be acquired at the doddanekundi station junction and the DRDO sports complex station junction..?

    Thank you!!

    Reply
  24. Mahadevpura resident says:

    TMRG – thanks for sharing this. Where can i see the exact station location? I am interested in Mahadevpura station. Also are the alignments available for future extensions? if yes, want to look at Kalyan Nagar as well.

    Reply
    • TMRG says:

      Locations of all stations between SB-KRP are available on the very last page of the DPR. We’ll have to wait for the extension’s DPR to find out the locations of future stations.

      Reply
  25. Abhilash says:

    Good Job. If you were to take a guess, (considering BMRCL track record, issues that can crop up in elevated sections, time to completion etc), when do you think (1) construction can start; (2) Line will be operational?

    Reply
    • TMRG says:

      (1) 2018-2019
      – influenced by pre-construction activities such as financing, detailed design consultant’s appointment, land acquisition, utility shifting

      (2) 2023-2024
      – influenced first by the above activities and then by construction constraints/issues/construction time

      Reply
  26. Vishwanath says:

    Hi,

    My parents have a property near the Hanging bridge krishnarajapuram ie – when u r driving from NEGF to krpura the property comes on right side of bridge , not facing to main road but the second line.

    Will that be acquired for the bmrcl.. I am unable to get that information anywhere

    Can u please help

    Thank you
    Vishu

    Reply
    • TMRG says:

      Hi, I don’t have land acquisition plans available with me, so can’t really comment. Not sure why BMRCL is so secretive, but you should ask your neighbors if you haven’t already done so.

      Reply
  27. Chandrashekar says:

    Hi, from silk board to kr Puram, Kadubisanahalli (not kodibisanahalli) station where it is exactly coming? Pls.

    Reply
  28. V.B.Reddy says:

    Hi, where exactly ISRO station is coming up. Is it towards KR Puram road side. whether parking is planned in this station. Thank You. V.B. Reddy

    Reply
  29. krish says:

    Where exactly is the Mahadevapura station coming up?is that near Volkswagen car showroom side?
    I see lot of empty place and dried up lakes over there.

    Reply
  30. Venkat says:

    Hi,

    I dont know whether it is right portal to post my question.

    I am planning to purchase one property on Marathahalli outer ring road and I am bit worried about the metro rail coming up there.

    I looked at the report too but still confused about the stations.I am interested to know the marathahalli bridge station and JP morgan station.

    1) Wanted to know whom and how to approach to get the NOC from metro rail people for that particular property.Wanted to know the procedure to follow to get the NOC?
    2) Is notices issued to the property owners to acquire the land in that area for the metro rail?

    Please help.

    Reply
  31. RaviM says:

    Any updates in Phase 2A sir,on Dec 25th I saw BMRCL were doing survey at Bellandur

    Reply
  32. srini says:

    Sir, Why there is no update on RV Road and bommasandra line, is this line ignored.. it will be helpful if this line gets connected with silk board and KR Puram line to high IT corridor connection E-city to KR Puram.

    Reply
  33. Kalpan says:

    When do we expect the contruction of Phase 2A to start? Any updates sir?

    Reply
  34. Pratap ks says:

    When it’s starting work

    Reply
  35. Anil says:

    The proposal of Phase 2A looks very good.. Hope the implementation phase can be expedited by starting the activity simultaneously from both Silk Board end and the KR Puram end.

    The future extension proposal ” Future Extension: The line is proposed to be extended to Hebbal via Nagawara which is the most logical next step” is very useful and hopefully if this is extended along the Ring Road through MES Road it can connect to the Tumkur Road Metro ” Thus the Circle can be completed. Thus from Hebbal if the Metro is connected to the Airport the steel flyover can be done away with. People from almost all corners of the ciry can travel to KIAL.

    The ISRO station is very ideal as it is the junction of the feeder road ( Quite wide) from Old Airport to the Ring Road. For Parking there is lot of Army Land adjacent to ISRO, Post Office Land a very huge parcel which is vacant. A skywalk along this feeder road can make it convenient for people to walk to the ISRO station after vehicle parkiing. This land can also be used for the feeder bus as this junction is the intersection to a large number of residential localities on either side of the Ring Road.

    Reply
  36. saiful says:

    i dont no how many more year BMRCL needs to complete the project . I think BMRCL needs more man power or fund to complete the project. Hope it will be complete by by 2050

    Reply
  37. Gaurav says:

    Hi,

    I am unable to find Silk Board-KR Puram 2A DPR as the link seems to have expired. Can you please share the doc? Thanks

    Reply
  38. Kirti says:

    Sir can I know the metro station from HSR Layout to Goraguntepalya

    Reply

Leave a Reply

Want to join the discussion?
Feel free to contribute!

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *